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Lakes, such as Lake Neusiedl are thus ideal large-scale laboratories that permit detailed examination of highly important aspects of authigenic dolomite formation.Calcium and magnesium isotope signatures trace Ca and Mg cycling within the lake and its catchment area in relation to authigenic high-Mg calcite and dolomite formation.parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. Solzhenitsyn might remember how the book starts: “In 1949 some friends and I came upon a noteworthy news item in Nature, a magazine of the Academy of Sciences. Mitochondrial DNA-based (mt DNA) studies on modern arctic ground squirrels support a scenario according to which all major divergence events in the Late Pleistocene occurred in North America.In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. It reported in tiny type that in the course of excavations on the Kolyma River a subterranean ice lens had been discovered which was actually a frozen stream - and in it were found frozen specimens of prehistoric fauna some tens of thousands of years old” (p. That very same news item in Nature (‘Priroda’) continued by reporting what Solzhenitsyn did not: that in May 1946 unnamed prisoners of GULAG recovered a nest with three complete mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels at a depth of 12.5 meters of the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river (the upper Indigirka river basin, Yakutia). Both, the lectotype and the paralectotype, are currently stored at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. A detailed examination of mt DNA variation in arctic ground squirrels throughout Alaska and the adjoining Yukon Territory revealed four non-overlapping geographic clades–Arctic, Beringia, Southeastern and Southwestern, possibly dated to the Middle Pleistocene indicated that southwestern Alaska populations, found south and west of the Alaska Range, were strongly differentiated from all other arctic ground squirrels of northwestern North America.In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part.In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr.The carcasses were extremely well preserved and “smelled of dampness immediately upon their recovery but lost the smell after having air-dried and remained in a stable condition resembling that of the mummies” (p. Most recently, a study of a large mt DNA dataset of the genus Urocitellus, including taxon sampling at the subspecies level for U.

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This is an unfalsifiable hypothesis, and is unscientific.

There are three standard creationist responses: First, creationists assert that current rates (Y) are different than past rates.

It is possible that these rates changed — but under uniformitarianism, which is necessary for science to function, we must assume that rates did not change unless there is evidence for this change.

This enigma is referred to as the dolomite problem.

In this sub-project, we investigate spatial trace element distributions and concentrations (e.g., Na, Sr, S, Fe, Mn), the isotopic signatures (e.g., δ) as well as the petrographic and mineralogical features of recent dolomites and ancient dolomitized platform carbonates in order to elucidate the physicochemical conditions and underlying dolomitization pathways operating in modern and past dolomite-forming environments.

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